Posted on September 30, 2021
BOSTON --- A new paper from Boston Indicators and MHP's Center for Housing Data suggests Greater Boston is well-positioned to create networks of more walkable neighborhoods and town centers if it embraces more policies to improve housing access, mobility infrastructure and equitable economic development.
The paper, entitled 15-Minute Neighborhoods: Repairing Regional Harms and Building Vibrant Neighborhoods for All, was released at a Boston Foundation forum on Sept. 29. In it, the authors detail a vision for building a regional network of these neighborhoods.
The 15-minute neighborhood model aims to build vibrant, mixed-use neighborhoods where all residents can reach their daily needs within a 15-minute walk of their home. The concept has been a popular shorthand for more walkable and vibrant areas. In laying out their version, however, the research team added three twists to make the concept more impactful:
- Their vision is regional and encourages an interconnected network of 15-minute neighborhoods across Greater Boston;
- They emphasized high-quality public transit and bike options as supplements to improved walkability;
- They also emphasized creating neighborhoods that prioritize racial and socioeconomic diversity.
“The concept alone is an opportunity, not a guarantee, for addressing some of the inequities we have let fester in our communities for decades,” said Dr. M. Lee Pelton, president and CEO at the Boston Foundation. “With this report, the Indicators and MHP team have created a vision that recognizes the needs for infrastructure and affordable housing that equitable development requires, and the policy changes needed to make that development more possible.”
The paper lays out a vision for what equitable 15-minute neighborhoods could look like and where Greater Boston falls short of making that vision a reality. It then explores how four Massachusetts neighborhoods stack up against the various elements of the 15-minute neighborhood concept. Lastly, it explores the policies that are keeping the region from creating more equitable mixed-use neighborhoods and the levers that could unlock the potential of a regional network of 15-minute neighborhoods.
“The case studies highlighted some of the great elements that many communities across Greater Boston have in place - compact downtowns, ready access to transit, shared public spaces and more,” said Luc Schuster, senior director of Boston Indicators. “But they also show the ways in which policy and infrastructure decisions can undermine how well these elements are used.
5 elements of the 15-minute neighborhood
The report highlights five elements that create an equitable version of the 15-minute neighborhood:
Redesigned streetscapes for walking, biking, gathering - The pandemic illustrated the power of reutilizing outdoor public spaces. In fact, many communities that expanded outdoor spaces have extended or made permanent their use. Deprioritizing roads for cars improves safety and provides opportunities to invest in accessibility, green space and public transit options.
Accessible commercial spaces - Improving resident access to commercial spaces provides the goods and services that residents need, generates new job and entrepreneurship opportunities close to home, and enlivens neighborhoods. Focusing on strengthening local ownership and innovation can feed a circular and inclusive economy.
Diverse housing options - Equitable 15-minute neighborhoods require abundant housing options available at a range of price points, including duplexes, triple-deckers, and small apartment buildings that ultimately support the creation of a socioeconomically and racially diverse resident population.
Diverse, empowered resident population - An equitable 15-minute neighborhood should reflect Greater Boston’s diversity and be accessible to all, regardless of socioeconomic status or background. Well-integrated neighborhoods must also equitably distribute power and resources among residents to prioritize the voices and needs of the most vulnerable among them.
Strong social infrastructure - Equitable 15-minute neighborhoods require social infrastructure - the places and spaces where people can relax, congregate, learn, worship and participate in civic life.
Case studies and policy imperatives
The other sections of the report examine how a cross-section of communities - an inner core Boston neighborhood (Jackson Square), a newly-built neighborhood (Somerville's Assembly Row), a Gateway Cities neighborhood (Worcester’s Canal District), and a suburban town center (Reading) have fared in creating equitable 15-minute neighborhoods.
The report recommends a series of state and local policy levers that could accelerate a regional network of 15-minute neighborhoods. Transportation and land use policy have favored cars over other transportation modes, and single-family-exclusive zoning has contributed to residential segregation by race and income and a regional housing shortage. State and local policymakers could readily implement ideas that would unlock new potential.
“Through policy actions and inactions, both the state and local communities have made equitable neighborhoods more challenging over the past decades,” said Tom Hopper, MHP's director of research and analytics. “Policy changes and critical investments, particularly in housing and transit, can unlock new opportunities.”
Among the recommendations:
- Legalize multifamily housing by right, especially near existing or planned transit nodes.
- Enact policies that encourage a mix of uses across neighborhoods and within individual buildings and properties.
- Increase the provision of affordable housing and strengthen tenant protections.
- Enact policies that better capture the cost of cars and rebalance streetscape design to include alternate uses.
- Eliminate minimum parking requirements, especially near transit nodes.
- Invest in local economic development in low-wealth communities.
- Support local planning efforts for walkable neighborhoods and open space.
- Invest in high-quality public transportation.
Regional and local:
- Allow regional ballot initiatives.
- Invest in regional transit agencies and regional mobility efforts, such as bikeshare programs.
- Enhance community engagement to plan with communities, instead of for communities.
- Design for people, not cars.
- Zoning reform for density and affordable housing.
- Leverage economic growth for equity-focused investments, either directly through taxation or indirectly through required contributions from developers.